The Inventory Section of the TPRI gives teachers an opportunity to acquire more data to help match reading instruction with specific student needs. This additional information can assist teachers and administrators as they assemble educational resources and plan the most effective instruction possible for students. All portions of the inventory are administered with students who score Still Developing (SD) on the Screening Section. For students who score Developed (D) on the Screening Section, the PA and GK portions of the Inventory Section are optional.
The skills assessed on the inventory for the different grade levels and times of year are illustrated on the following chart:
|Inventory||Kindergarten||Grade 1||Grade 2||Grade 3|
|Book and Print Awareness|
Reading Concepts Assessed on the Inventory Section
The ability to think about individual words as a sequence of sounds (phonemes) is important to learning how to read an alphabetic language. Students’ phonemic awareness, that is, their understanding that spoken words can be divided into separate sounds, is one of the best predictors of success in learning to read. Instruction that promotes student understanding and use of these building blocks of spoken language includes language games where students manipulate the sounds of words, separate or segment the sounds of words, blend sounds, delete sounds, and substitute new sounds for those deleted.
The understanding that written words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sounds of spoken words is known as graphophonemic knowledge. Becoming aware of the sounds of spoken language and their relationship to the letters of written language prepares students to understand the alphabetic principle. Targeted instruction provides students with explicit and systematic teaching of letter-sound relationships in a sequence that permits them to begin reading. Such instruction helps students understand the alphabetic principle and learn the relationships between sounds and letters. Activities that involve combining and manipulating letters and word parts to change words and spelling patterns further develop this understanding.
Following the Graphophonemic Knowledge portion of the inventory is the Word Reading portion. On the Word Reading portion students read sets of decodable words, demonstrating their ability to correctly decode words with a range of different phonic elements.
Comprehension depends upon the ability to identify words quickly in order to concentrate on the meanings of words. Efficient readers automatically and correctly (accurately) translate the words and sentences they read into meaningful ideas. Beginning readers need opportunities to read and reread passages and books that allow them to successfully practice what they are learning about sounds and letters.
Once students begin to decode individual words automatically, they are on their way to becoming fluent readers. Fluency is a combination of reading rate—the speed with which text is decoded—and accuracy. The ability to read fluently has a great impact on the ability to comprehend text. Fluency and comprehension are closely related. Fluent readers are able to focus less time on decoding, leaving more attention free for comprehension. Having the ability to read fluently is demonstrated by the ability to read with prosody (expression), appropriate phrasing, and attention to punctuation.
The TPRI provides End-of-Year fluency rate targets for first, second and third grade. Fluent first grade readers have a reading rate of about 60 words correct per minute. Fluent second grade readers have a reading rate of about 90 words correct per minute. Fluent third grade readers have a reading rate of about 120 words correct per minute.
Students who read 10 or fewer words correct per minute are considered nonfluent. Nonfluent readers are characterized as reading haltingly, ignoring punctuation, and combining phrases and sentences. They often read with little expression. These students need multiple opportunities for practice because nonfluent readers often lose interest in reading altogether. By monitoring student progress in fluency, you can help motivate students to read, aid in selection of appropriate practice books, and graph progress over time.
Listening to and talking about books on a regular basis provides students with pleasurable and beneficial reading experiences. Story reading introduces students to words, sentences, places, and ideas. Students are also exposed to the type of vocabulary, sentences, and literary elements they will find in their schoolbooks. Reading aloud to students every day and talking about books and stories supports and extends oral language development and helps students connect oral and written language. Developing listening comprehension also improves reading comprehension.
Reading comprehension depends upon the reader's understanding of word meanings, ability to extract meaning from groups of words (e.g., clauses, sentences, and paragraphs), and ability to draw inferences. Comprehension also depends upon the demands of the text and the background knowledge the student brings to it.
The discussion of good books among friends and classmates is one avenue for deepening understanding. Such discussions will help students appreciate and reflect upon new aspects of written language. Activities that will heighten comprehension and enjoyment include previewing selections, anticipating content, and making connections between what students already know and what they are reading. Comparing the elements of different stories, including specific events, themes, and characters will also help students gain a deeper understanding of what they are reading.